Assertion (A): The organization is a closed system that operates within and interacts with the external environment

Reason (R): The system approach to management includes the outputs from the external environment on the basis of interactions between management and employees.


  • A

    (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct reasoning of (A)

  • B

    (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

  • C

    (A) is incorrect while (R) is a correct statement

  • D

    Both (A) and (R) are incorrect